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21 hours

Course Price

$ 499.00

4.5 (23)


Course Content


1. Introduction to LoadRunner

  • What is LoadRunner?
  • Why LoadRunner?
  • LoadRunner Components
  • LoadRunner Protocols
  • Protocol Advisor
  • LoadRunner Architecture
  • How LoadRunner works?
  • Load Test Process

2. Vugen Introduction

  • What is Vugen?
  • Why Vugen?
  • Vugen Workflow
  • Vugen Recording options
  • Recording Levels
  • Different Modes (HTML, URL & GUI)

3. Actions & Transactions

  • What are Transactions?
  • Why Transactions?
  • Syntax with example
  • Nested Transactions with syntax and example
  • Transaction naming standards
  • Creation New Actions
  • Editing/Deleting Actions

4. Introduction To C

  • Datatypes in C
  • Conditional Statements
  • Different Loops (For, While & Do While)
  • Arrays
  • Pointers
  • String Functions
  • strcpy
  • strcmp
  • strlen
  • strchr

5. File Operations IN C

  • Reading/ Writing into File
  • Different File Handling Functions
  • Fopen
  • Fwrite
  • Fread
  • Fclose
  • Rewind
  • Feof

6. LR functions

  • atoi()
  • itoa()
  • lr_eval_string()
  • lr_save_string()
  • lr_save_int()
  • lr_free_parameter()
  • lr_advance_parameter()
  • lr_next_row()

7. Parameterization

  • What is Parameterization?
  • Why Parameterization?
  • Objectives of Parameterization
  • Parameter types
  • Simulate Parameters
  • Parameter Properties
  • Parameter combinations

8. Checkpoints & Rendezvous

  • What are checkpoints?
  • Types of checkpoints
  • Web_reg_find
  • Web_find
  • Rendezvous point
  • Lr_rendezvous
  • Lr_rendezvous_ex

9. Correlation

  • What is Correlation?
  • Why Correlation?
  • Manual Correlation
  • Auto Correlation
  • Web_reg_save_param() function
  • Web_reg_save_param() function with regular expression
  • How to identify which values to correlate
  • Correlation Rules

10. RunTime Settings

  • Run Logic
  • Pacing
  • Log
  • Think Time
  • Speed Simulation
  • Browser Emulation
  • Proxy
  • Blocks – Multiple Actions
  • Think time vs Pacing

11. Error Handling

  • Error Handling
  • Lr_error_message
  • Debugging

12. Comments in the script

  • Why use comments in the scripts?
  • How to insert comments in the scripts?

13. Vugen Logs

  • Vugen logs
  • Recorded log
  • Replay log
  • Compilation errors
  • Runtime Data

14. Script Structure

  • Script Structure
  • Multiple action files
  • Script Rules

15. LoadRunner Controller

  • What is Controller?
  • Different kind of Scenario’s
  • Basic Schedule
  • Real World Schedule
  • By group Schedule
  • Scenarios Creation.
  • Adding Load Generators and verifying the connectivity
  • Load Generators, Calculating the # of LGs for a load test.
  • Run Time settings
  • Executing the tests
  • Post-execution activity
  • Monitoring servers through controller
  • Windows resources

16. LoadRunner Analyzer

  • What is Analyzer?
  • Auto Load Analysis
  • Session Explorer
  • 90thPercentile
  • Analyzer Graphs
  • Analyzer Reports
  • Drill-down
  • Granularity
  • Auto Correlate
  • Cross Results
  • Merge Graphs

17. Live Projects Working

  • Scenario Creation
  • One Complete End to End Flow



Trainer Profile


Dharmendra Dayal
  • 10 years of experience in Performance Testing
  •  Performance Testing experts in various domains e-Learning, HR, Health Care, Retail, Airline, Banking, Media and Entertainment and Insurance Domain.
  • Highest qualification Master in Computer Application
  • Experienced in performance testing activites like Requirements gathering, Test Strategy & Test Plan Creation, WLM, Scenarios identification, Performance test script development,  Performance test execution, Bottlenecks identification, Result analysis & Reporting
Technical Skills
  • Testing Methods: Performance Testing (Load Testing, Isolation Testing, Stress Testing, Spike Testing, Endurance Testing, Break point Testing, Right Sizing Testing and Failover Testing)
  • Documentation: Expert in Test Case, Test Plan creation, Test Execution Report preparation.
  • Performance Tools: HP Load Runner(9.5 , 11.52 & 12.52), Performance Centre, JMeter, NeoLoad, Gatling.
  • Operating System: Windows 7, Linux, UNIX, XP, Ubuntu, CentOS, Solaris
  • Defect Tracking Tool: JIRA, wiki, Borland Star Team
  • Monitoring Servers: Splunk, Perfmon, Team Quest, New Relic, AppDynamics, CA WILY Introscope, Negios, Dynatrace 6.5
  • Platforms: Java and C
Professional Experience
  • Experience in Requirement gathering, POC, Test Plan Creation, Test Development, Test Modeling, Test Execution, Report Analysis and recommendation and suggestion.
  • Experience in Software Performance Testing for e-Learning, HR, Health Care, Retail, Airline, Media and Entertainment and Insurance Domain.
  • Extensive experience in E2E Performance Testing, Load Testing, Capacity Testing, Endurance Testing, Break point Testing, Volume Testing, Right Sizing Testing, Distributed Testing and Failover Testing.
  • Worked on HTTP/HTML, Flex AMF Protocol, WEB Services, Citrix ICA, Java Protocol, SAP Web, Ajax true Client, Click and script protocols, SOAP protocol / REST API in HP Load runner and Jmeter (even created custom plugins).
  • Participated in review meetings and support other teams in identifying the root cause of slowness on the application as a shadow resource through APM Tool i.e. Splunk, AppDynamics,Team Quest, CA WILY Introscope and Dynatrace.
  • Extensively performed Functional and Performance testing for Performance Test Cases to ensure the quality of the S/W.
  • Managing communicate regularly with onshore/offshore Team(s), providing accurate estimates, progress updates, raising performance issues and highlighted project concerns.
  • Responsible for executing and maintaining Load Test Scripts and Scenarios.
  • Experience in managing, assisting and supporting other teams on different project regarding requirement gathering, Load Test Scripts creation and logging defects when it's failed in the system.
  • Experience in managing large load test scripts using CI tool for JMeter and Gatling.
  • Well versed with all stages of Software Test Life Cycle. Proficiency at grasping new technical concepts quickly and utilizing the same in a productive manner.
  • Experience in Defect Life Cycle and Bug reporting mechanism.
  • Verify test results with expected results; follow up with users, analysts, developers

Interview Questions & Answer


1) What Is Loadrunner?

LoadRunner accurately measure and analysis the system performance and its functionality. It is for web and other applications. It provides a variety of application environments, platforms and databases.


2) When Loadrunner Is Used?

Load runner is used to:

  • Test applications when load sustaining is critical for our project
  • When3 the tool/application developed is expected to work under heavy loads. In all cases, load testing manually is not possible.


3) List down the main components of  LoadRunner?

Virtual user generator - For generating Scripts

Load generator- create the load by running Vusers.

Controller - it organizes drives manages and monitor the load test.

Analyzer – it helps to view, dissect, compare and analyse results.

Launcher- provide a single point of excess for all the loadrunner components


4) What is the Loadrunner Testing Process?

Loadrunner testing process has 6 steps:

1-planning the test.

2-creating vuser script.

3-creating the scenario.

4- running the scenario.

5-monitoring the scenario.

6-analysis the test result.


5) What do you mean by Vusers?

Virtual user imitate a human using the application. Vuser perform the action of human working with application. When workstations allow only one single human user to work, Many Vusers can concurrently work on a single workstation.


6) What is Vuser scripts?

It is the script which contains all the details of the work performed by the Vuser to complete the specific task. While run a scenarion every vuser execute a script that script known as vuser script . It contains the function that measure and record the performance of the application or application components.


7) What type of environment is used for load testing?

  Load testing is performed under a controlled environment based on requirement specifications.  A test plan is created from the requirements and scenarios are created based on the test plan.


8) What Protocols Does Loadrunner Support?

Loadrunner supports Industry standard protocols for example HTTP and ODBC.  Furthermore any protocol that communicates over a windows socket can be supported.


9) Explain what LoadRunner is capable of monitoring?

Loadrunner is capable of monitoring CPU utilization, response of the system, system stress etc.


10) What is a scenario?

A scenario defines the events that occur during each testing session.


11) How to Create A Scenario?

In order to create a scenario we have to:

  • install LoadRunner controller to the host .
  • Then we include list of host(where vuser script execute)
  • then list of vuser script (where vuser run)
  • then list of vuser that run during the scenario.


12) What is the advantage of using LoadRunner?

The Advantages of using the loadrunner are:

1. With the help of vusers reduces the human users
2. Reduces the reqirement of the systems
3. Helps in the better usage of time and money
4. Effective utilization of automation
5. Everything done from a single point.


13) What are monitors?

Monitors are used to "monitor" performance bottlenecks. They are used in Controller section of Load Runner.


14) How do you identify the performance bottlenecks?

The Performance Bottlenecks can be identified by using monitors.

  • These monitors might be application server monitors, database server monitors, web server monitors and network monitors.
  • They help us   in finding out the troubled area in our scenario which causes increased response time.
  • The measurements made are usually a performance response time, throughput, hits/sec, network delay graphs, etc.


15) What is the difference between lr_error_message and lr_debug _message?

lr_error_message - Sends an error message to the LoadRunner Controller's Output window

lr_debug _message - Sends a debug message to the LoadRunner Controller's Output window


16) How do you load a load runner Agent?

While running the scenario, LoadRunner controller instructs the remote agent dispatcher to launch LoadRunner agent. The controller instructs the LoadRunner agent to initialize, run, pause and stop the vusers.


17) What are all the important protocols that Load Runner supports?

Following are the protocols that Load Runner can support are:

.net record




Oracle e business


Web 2.0

Web and multimedia



Java record and replay

Remote desktop


18) Define Rendezvous Point and give An Example?

Rendezvous points are used to emulate heavy user load on the server. Rendezvous points instruct VIRTUAL users to wait during test execution to enable multitasking.
For example, in an e-commerce application, rendezvous points are added for 1000+ users to bid for a product simultaneously.

19) How you can enhance the basic script?

We can enhance the basic script by adding control flow, structure, by inserting transaction point and rendezvous point, adding function.




LoadRunner and its Architecture: An Introduction

Did you know companies lose up to $4.4 billion annually because of poor web performance? If your     website doesn’t load within eight seconds, then the users are going to switch to another one.

This is where performance testing comes into the picture. Currently, around 500 people might be using your software, but how will it behave with 50,000 users? By performance, we mean that the software should be scalable, load pages at faster speed, and stay stable despite rapid increase in visitors.  Performance can be classified into three main categories:

• Speed — Does the application respond quickly enough for the intended users?
• Scalability — Will the application handle the expected user load and beyond?
• Stability — Is the application stable under expected and unexpected user loads?

There are different types of tests to check the different variables including peak test, endurance test, stress test, and load test.  

Loadrunner is an efficient performance testing tool. LoadRunner was first developed by Mercury in 1999. It was acquired by HPE in 2006, who then sold it to MicroFocus in 2016.

The tool is so popular that it owns 85 percent of the performance testing market share. It supports Rich Internet Applications (RIA), MS SQLServer, Web 2.0 (HTTP/HTML, Flex, Ajax, and Silverlight among others), Mobile, RTE, Mail, and other technologies, putting HP LoadRunner at a top position above all competitors.

You can use it along with Application Lifecycle Management (ALM) and Unified Functional Test (QTP) as all three together act as an end-to-end solution for your product’s testing phase.

The tool simulates Virtual Users on your website or web application and replicates user requests and application responses to give you an in-depth look into how it will behave in a real situation.

Below are the six amazing features offered by its latest version, LoadRunner 12.60:

  • You can enable or disable HTTP/2 features using the runtime setting
  • The Network Virtualization feature is now free to use
  • You can connect one or multiple IP addresses for Oracle NCA protocol using the updated runtime setting
  • It offers new and updated Dockerized Load Generators
  • It offers better desktop pool support that you can use to sync on bitmap timeout per step for PCoIP protocol
  • You can now save a graph as an image file

HP LoadRunner Architecture

The LoadRunner architecture can get a bit complex, so let’s take one step at a time:

It has five key components, which include:

  • Load Generator
  • Controller
  • Vu Gen
  • Agent process
  • Analysis

Apart from this, it also offers modules to replay, capture, and script multiple application and networking technologies, which include:

  • Applications that use .NET and Java
  • Database servers including Oracle and Microsoft SQL Server
  • Remote client technologies like RDP and Citrix ICA
  • Internetworking protocols like LDAP, DNS, and FTP
  • E-mail protocols such as IMAP, POP3, MAPI, and SMTP

Let’s use an example to understand how the architecture works. Suppose you are checking the performance of your website, abcxyz.com for 5,000 visitors. They won’t be on the home page at once but different parts of the website. Each component plays specific roles in the performance testing process.

1. Load Generator

It simulates the VUsers (virtual users), which take up the hardware resources including processor and memory. You will have to use multiple load generators so that the results are accurate, which depends on the number of VUsers.

The machines use 2 to 4 MB data to develop one simulated VUser, so you will need multiple machines that have a total of 1.25 GB of RAM space.

2. Controller

The controller is the most crucial component of the architecture as it manages the load simulation. Some other functions that it performs include:

  • IP spoofing
  • Error reporting
  • Nature of Load scenario
  • Handling VUsers behavior

Let’s say, 250 simulated users are in checkout, 3,000 are checking products on your website, and the remaining are making the payment. To keep the load real, the controller will release five customers every two seconds. They will be divided into two machines equally.

3. Vu Gen

Virtual User Generator replicates System under Load and records behavior and communication of the VUsers to and fro with the server in a scripted format. Examples of the business communication it records include:

  • Payment Processing
  • Product Surfing
  • Checkout
  • Checking User Profile

4. Agent process

It controls the way Controller and Load Generator communicates with each other.

5. Analysis

It records user logs from multiple load generators in the required formats. It also monitors data and helps you run result data.

How to plan performance testing?

 HP LoadRunner Performance Testing process has five steps, which include:

1. Load Test planning –

In the first step, you define the goals, select the system you want to use, and gather system usage data.

2. Creating VUGen Scripts –

The actual process begins as you start recording VU Scripts, add test data, and enhance scripts.

3. Scenario Creation –

You create scenarios that help you create a simulated reality. You will have to realign the goals to achieve accurate results.

4. Scenario Execution –

In this step, you have to perform overload testing after executing the scenario. Drive, manage, and monitor the load test from the LoadRunner Controller.

5. Results Analysis –

You have to check how the expected results with the actual results. Collect the feedback and make changes to your website. Use LoadRunner Analysis to create graphs and reports, and evaluate the performance.

The next process that follows performance testing is tweaking and optimization of your website or web application.

During this, you have to optimize the code, fine tune the system, and change configurations to make the website efficient enough to handle more visitors. After making the changes, you can run the HP LoadRunner test once more.


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